Trieste Municipality of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (85.11 km2 with 201.613 ab. in 2020, called Triestini), provincial capital until 30 September 2017 and region. It is one of the main Italian ports, located in the inner part of the gulf that bears its name and closes to N the Adriatic Sea. With the promontory on which stands its oldest nucleus, T. separates from the rest of the gulf the deepest inlet known as Vallone (or Bay) of Muggia. Deprived by the political events of the Second World War of its traditional hinterland, it stretches amphitheatrically partly along the coastal arch, partly on the low hills on the slopes of the karst ciglione that frames it behind.
The urban history of T. has been strongly influenced by the role that the multiple political changes have played in the social and economic dynamics of the city, as well as by the events of its port. The geometric regularity of the urban design of the central districts highlights these influences as a result of the wide-ranging projects that have cadenced the Habsburg domination, in the period in which the city has experienced the fastest growth. The movement towards the Valley of Muggia of the main port and industrial activities has instead favored the urban expansion, in the second post-war period, towards that section of the gulf.
The constant demographic decline (11% less in the last 20 years), linked both to the strongly negative natural balance and to the poor dynamics of migratory movements, determines the progressive aging of the population and legitimizes some concern for the future of the city. A fundamental resource of the city’s economic fabric is the port, which, after a long period of marginality, regained, with the dissolution of Yugoslavia (1991), a leading role in communications and trade with Central and Eastern Europe. The port of T. today it is the second port in Italy, after Genoa, for freight traffic. Among the most handled goods, oil (which takes the road to Central Europe, via the pipeline to Ingolstadt), coal and other minerals, timber and foodstuffs (T. has maintained the ancient specialization of coffee port). The containerized traffic has reached remarkable levels above all thanks to the activity of the Molo Settimo. Traditional main sectors of the Trieste industry are shipbuilding, metallurgical, mechanical and petrochemical, concentrated largely in the industrial area of the Vallone di Zaule (the innermost part of the Vallone di Muggia). This complex of industrial activities maintains a decent vitality, while being affected by the general downsizing of heavy industry. There are also food, textile, pharmaceutical and polygraphic industries. The setback in industrial development has left room especially for the tertiary sector, in which the majority of the working population is now employed. The banking and insurance activities (T. is the headquarters of Assicurazioni Generali and the Llo adriatico D adriatico, now part of the Allianz group) offer an important reservoir for qualified employment, as well as representing the most stable voices of the city’s economy. Among the new initiatives that work in an attempt to promote the city in a medium-long term perspective, it is worth noting the creation of a scientific research area among the most advanced in Italy and competitive on a European level. The tourist economy is also growing, especially that linked to business and congress movements and short and medium-haul pleasure craft.
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