Rostov-on-Don (about 1.1 million inhabitants) is a regional capital on the North Caucasus. The city is located in the south of the country, about 46 kilometers from the mouth of the Don River to the Sea of Azov, a tributary of the Black Sea. The Don impresses with its beautiful landscape that surrounds it.
The area is the center of the Don Cossacks, a subgroup of the Cossacks. Once Rostov-on-Don was an important port city in southern Russia. During the war, the city was severely destroyed and was then rebuilt in a modern way. Worth seeing is the cathedral built by Konstantin Andreyevich Thon, and also the theater. In summer, a visit to the bathing beaches is possible. Rostov-on-Don is also considered the “gateway to the Caucasus”, a high mountain range between the Black and Caspian Seas, on the border of Europe and Asia. Here you will find untouched mountain worlds of breathtaking beauty.
Rostov-on-Don is the southernmost megacity of Russia (1,115,000 inhabitants). Rostov stretches on the right bank of the Don River, which flows into the Sea of Azov after 48 km. The city is relatively young: in 1749 a customs post was established to protect the Russian trade routes against the Turks. in 1761, the construction of the fortress, named after Metropolitan Dmitry Rostovsky, began. Rostov received city rights in 1769, and the name was given with the addition “on the Don”, so as not to confuse it with the city of Rostov Velikiy (the Big Rostov), which belongs to the cities of the Golden Ring.
Thanks to its convenient location as a transport hub, Rostov soon received the name “Gateway to the Caucasus”. The railway line from Moscow via Voronezh reached Rostov in 1871, strengthening the importance of the city. In the 19th century, Rostov was a transshipment point of wood, coal and tobacco. Trade flourished with grain, which was delivered to Southern and Western Europe from the Rostov port. Rostov was also the center of the manufacturing industry: tobacco was grown in the Northern Caucasus. Sheep kept in the dry zone gave wool. In addition, there were wood sawmills, soap-making plants, mills and shipbuilding. The expansion of industry was accelerated in the 20th century by the construction of a large cement factory and the industrial giant “Rostselmash” (1929), in which agricultural machinery is produced. The combines produced there are famous. Almost all branches of industry are represented in over 150 industrial enterprises in the city, not to mention breweries, the wineries for Don wines, champagne and sparkling wine. In addition, due to its fertile black soils, agricultural products are produced on a large scale in the Rostov region, in particular cereals.
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