The federal German capital Berlin and at the same time the federal state of Berlin, is located in the middle of the state of Brandenburg in the northeast of Germany. Berlin is not only the capital, but also the largest and most populous city in the country.
The capital of Germany as a whole has been Berlin since reunification in 1990 and, as the seat of the Federal Government, the Federal President, the Federal Council and the Bundestag, it is also the most important city in Germany politically. Like the city–states and the federal states of Hamburg and Bremen, Berlin is governed by a Senate.
The seat of the government and the incumbent mayor is the Red Town Hall in the immediate vicinity of the TV Tower. After the last amalgamation of the districts, Berlin still consists of a total of twelve districts, some with very different cityscapes. In recent years, Berlin has become an attraction especially for tourists and, in addition to the rich nightlife, has many sights, forests, lakes and, with the Havel and Spree, two rivers that flow through the capital.
The geographical location of Berlin depends on the Red Town Hall and is therefore 52 ° 31′ 6″ north latitude and 13 ° 24′ 30″ east longitude.
The largest extent of the federal capital is 45 km (east-west) and 38 km (north-south). Berlin has a total area of 892 km2. The city is completely surrounded by the state of Brandenburg and about 70 km from the Polish border. The city area is crossed by the Spree in an east-west direction and the Havel north-south.
The landscape was created in the Ice Age, the Vistula Ice Age. About 20,000 years ago, the area was still covered by the Scandinavian ice sheet, several 100 meters thick. When the glacier melted back, the Berlin Urstromtal was formed.
In the Berlin district of Spandau, the Spree flows into the Havel. The course of the river Havel resembles a lake landscape. The largest bulges are the Tegeler See and the Großer Wannsee.
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